Chaieb M, Sassi DB, Jemai J, Mellouli K. Challenges and solutions for the integrated recovery room planning and scheduling problem during COVID-19 pandemic. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 60:1295-1311, 2022

Grasso S, Waterman LA, Parra E, Silveira L, Hoefner-Notz R, Gance-Cleveland B. Development and evaluation of the Pediatric Readiness for Discharge (P-REDI) tool. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 37:221-226, 2022


Debats CEJM, Dellaert NP, Pouwel S, Stepaniak PS. Balancing workload in the PACU by using an integrated OR planning methodology. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing 36:279-290, 2021

Dexter F, Epstein RH. Implications of the log-normal distribution for updating estimates of the time remaining until ready for phase I post-anesthesia care unit discharge. Perioperative Care and Operating Room Management 23:100165, 2021

Polshin V, Petro J, Wachtendorf LJ, Hammer M, Simopoulos T, Eikermann M, Santer P. Effect of peripheral nerve blocks on postanesthesia care unit length of stay in patients undergoing ambulatory surgery: a retrospective cohort study. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 46:233-239, 2021

Rice AN, Douglas C, Bosarge H, Young G, Muckler VC, Vacchiano CA. Fast-tracking patients in an academic hospital to increase efficiency and decrease discharge delays: a process improvement plan. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 36:615-621, 2021

Sugiyama D, Dexter F, Thenuwara K, Ueda K. Comparison of percentage prolonged times to tracheal extubation between a Japanese teaching hospital and one in the United States, without and with a phase I post-anesthesia care unit. Anesthesia and Analgesia 133:1206-1214, 2021

Wang K, Qin H, Huang Y, Luo MW, Zhou L. Surgery scheduling in outpatient procedure centre with re-entrant patient flow and fuzzy service times. Omega 102:102350, 2021


Aspi MTB, Ko-Villa E. The use of determinants of length of stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) at the Philippine General Hospital among postoperative patients who underwent elective surgeries to create a predictive model for PACU length of stay. Acta Medica Philippina 54:490-497, 2020

Elsharydah A, Walters DR, Somasundaram A, Bryson TD, Minhajuddin A, Gabriel RA, Grewal GK. A preoperative predictive model for prolonged post-anaesthesia care unit stay after outpatient surgeries. Journal of Perioperative Practice 30:91-96, 2020

Epstein RH, Dexter F, Diez C. The distributions of weekday discharge times at acute care hospitals in the state of Florida were static from 2010 to 2018. Journal of Medical Systems 44:47, 2020

Idoffsson Å, Olsson C, Holmén A, Granberg-Axell A, Chew MS. Development and validation of an instrument to measure nursing workload in the postanaesthesia care unit. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 37:864-873, 2020

Krupic F, Svantesson E, Seffo N, Westin O, Hamrin Senorski E. Use of the World Health Organization checklist - Swedish health care professionals' experience: a mixed-method study. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 35:288-293, 2020

Liu S, Wang Z, Xiong J, Wan L, Luo A, Wang X. Continuous analysis of critical incidents for 92,136 postanesthesia care unit patients of a Chinese university hospital. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 35:630-634, 2020

López-Parra M, Porcar-Andreu L, Arizu-Puigvert M, Pujol-Caballé G. Cohort study on the implementation of a surgical checklist from the operating room to the postanesthesia care unit. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 35:155-159, 2020

Nelson SE, Sandberg WS, Clifton JC, Cui Y, Shotwell MS, Wanderer JP. Holding some postoperative patients overnight in the post-anesthesia care unit as a tactic to deal with hospital congestion is associated with increased resource length of stay. Perioperative Care and Operating Room Management 21:100111, 2020

Schulz EB, Philips F, Waterbright S. Case-mix adjusted postanaesthesia care unit length of stay and business intelligence dashboards for feedback to anaesthetists. British Journal of Anaesthesia 125:1079-1087, 2020

van Tunen B, Klimek M, Leendertse-Verloop K, Stolker RJ. Efficiency and efficacy of planning and care on a post-anesthesia care unit: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Health Services Research 20:566, 2020


Assel MJ, Laudone VP, Twersky RS, Vickers AJ, Simon BA. Assessing rapidity of recovery after cancer surgeries in a single overnight short-stay setting. Anesthesia and Analgesia 129:1007-1013, 2019

Card EB, Hyman SA, Wells N, Shi Y, Shotwell MS, Weinger MB. Burnout and resiliency in perianesthesia nurses: findings and recommendations from a national study of members of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 34:1130-1145, 2019

Fairley M, Scheinker D, Brandeau ML. Improving the efficiency of the operating room environment with an optimization and machine learning model. Health Care Management Science 22:756-767, 2019

Kiekkas P, Tsekoura V, Aretha D, Samios A, Konstantinou E, Igoumenidis M, Stefanopoulos N, Fligou F. Nurse understaffing is associated with adverse events in postanesthesia care unit patients. Journal of Clinical Nursing 28:2245-2252, 2019

Weissman C, Scemama J, Weiss YG. The ratio of PACU length-of-stay to surgical duration: practical observations. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 63:1143-1151, 2019


Blouin-Delisle CH, Drolet R, Gagnon S, Turcotte S, Boutet S, Coulombe M, Daneau E. Improving flow in the OR: how lean process studies can lead to shorter stays in the recovery ward. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 31:150-161, 2018

Cobbe KA, Barford-Cubitt S. Nonclinical factors affecting PACU discharge: a clinical audit in a one-day surgery unit. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 33:676-680, 2018

Khorasanian D, Dexter F, Moslehi G. Analyses of the phase I postanesthesia care unit baseline capacity and effect of disruptions to its beds or nurse availability on operating room workflow. International Journal of Planning and Scheduling 2:350-372, 2018

Thenuwara KN, Yoshimura T, Nakata Y, Dexter F. Time to recovery after general anesthesia at hospitals with and without a phase I post-anesthesia care unit: a historical cohort study. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 12:1296-1302, 2018  


Bai M, Storer RH, Tonkay GL. A sample-gradient-based algorithm for a multiple-OR and PACU surgery scheduling problem. IIE Transactions 49:367-380, 2017

Bam M, Denton BT, Van Oyen MP, Cowen ME. Surgery scheduling with recovery resources. IISE Transactions 49:942-955, 2017

Gabriel RA, Waterman RS, Kim J, Ohno-Machado L. A predictive model for extended postanesthesia care unit length of stay in outpatient surgeries. Anesthesia & Analgesia 124:1529-1536, 2017

Li X, Rafaliya N, Baki MF, Chaouch BA. Scheduling elective surgeries: the tradeoff among bed capacity, waiting patients and operating room utilization using goal programming. Health Care Management Science 20:33-54, 2017

O'Donnell BD, Walsh K, Murphy A, McElroy B, Iohom G, Shorten GD. An evaluation of operating room throughput in a stand-alone soft-tissue trauma operating theatre. Romanian Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 24:13-20, 2017

Park LS, Yang G, Tan KS, Wong CH, Oskar S, Borchardt RA, Tollinche LE. Does checklist implementation improve quantity of data transfer: an observation in postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Open Journal of Anesthesiology 7:69-82, 2017

Ruiz-Patiño A, Acosta-Ospina LE, Rueda JD. Solving the negative impact of congestion in the postanesthesia care unit: a cost of opportunity analysis. Journal of Surgical Research 210:86-91, 2017

Sento Y, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y, Scott DA, Sobue K. The past, present and future of the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) in Japan. Journal of Anesthesia 31:601-607, 2017


Halfpap E. Staff developed PACU acuity scoring grid. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 31:303-308, 2016

Whitley DR. Integrative literature review: ascertaining discharge readiness for pediatrics after anesthesia. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing 31:23-35, 2016


Armstrong J, Forrest H, Crawford MW. A prospective observational study comparing a physiological scoring system with time-based discharge criteria in pediatric ambulatory surgical patients. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 62:1082-1088, 2015

Metzler EC, Kodali BS, Urman RD, Flanagan HL, Rego MS, Vacanti JC. Strategies to maintain operating room functionality following the complete loss of the recovery room due to an internal disaster. American Journal of Disaster Medicine 10:5-12, 2015


Epstein RH, Dexter F, Lopez MG, Ehrenfeld JM. Anesthesiologist staffing considerations consequent to the temporal distribution of hypoxemic episodes in the postanesthesia care unit. Anesthesia & Analgesia 119:1322-1333, 2014  

Lee S, Yih Y. Reducing patient-flow delays in surgical suites through determining start-times of surgical cases. European Journal of Operational Research 238:620-629, 2014


Ehrenfeld JM, Dexter F, Rothman BS, Minton BS, Johnson D, Sandberg WS, Epstein RH. Lack of utility of a decision support system to mitigate delays in admission from the operating room to the post anesthesia care unit. Anesthesia & Analgesia 117:1444-1452, 2013  


Cowie B, Corcoran P. Postanesthesia care unit discharge delay for nonclinical reasons. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 27:393-398, 2012

Parra-Sanchez I, Abdallah R, You J, Fu AZ, Grady M, Cummings K 3rd, Apfel C, Sessler DI. A time-motion economic analysis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in ambulatory surgery. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 59:366-375, 2012


Kuo AM, Borycki E, Kushniruk A, Lee TS. A healthcare Lean Six Sigma System for postanesthesia care unit workflow improvement. Quality Management in Health Care 20:4-14, 2011

Price C, Golden B, Harrington M, Konewko R, Wasil E, Herring W. Reducing boarding in a post-anesthesia care unit. Production and Operations Management 20:431-441, 2011


Ehrenfeld JM, Seim AR, Berger DL, Sandberg WS. Implementation of a direct-from-recovery-room discharge pathway: a process improvement effort. Surgical Innovation 16:258-265, 2009

Schoenmeyr T, Dunn PF, Gamarnik D, Levi R, Berger DL, Daily BJ, Levine WC, Sandberg WS. A model for understanding the impacts of demand and capacity on waiting time to enter a congested recovery room. Anesthesiology 110:1293-1304, 2009


Brown I, Jellish WS, Kleinman B, Fluder E, Sawicki K, Katsaros J, Rahman R. Use of postanesthesia discharge criteria to reduce discharge delays for inpatients in the postanesthesia care unit. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 20:175-179, 2008

Twersky RS, Sapozhnikova S, Toure B. Risk factors associated with fast-track ineligibility after monitored anesthesia care in ambulatory surgery patients. Anesthesia & Analgesia 106:1421-1426, 2008


Marcon E, Dexter F. An observational study of surgeons' sequencing of cases and its impact on postanesthesia care unit and holding area staffing requirements at hospitals. Anesthesia & Analgesia 105:119-126, 2007  


Awad IT, Chung F. Factors affecting recovery and discharge following ambulatory surgery. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 53:858-872, 2006

Dexter F, Wachtel RE, Epstein RH. Impact of average patient acuity on staffing of the phase I PACU. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 21:303-310, 2006

Marcon E, Dexter F. Impact of surgical sequencing on post anesthesia care unit staffing. Health Care Management Science 9:87-98, 2006

Meyer MA, Sokal SM, Sandberg W, Chang Y, Daily B, Berger DL. INCOMING!--A web tracking application for PACU and post-surgical patients. Journal of Surgical Research. 132:153-158, 2006

Samad K, Khan M, Hameedullah, Khan FA, Hamid M, Khan FH. Unplanned prolonged postanaesthesia care unit length of stay and factors affecting it. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 56:108-112, 2006


Dexter F, Epstein RH, Marcon E, de Matta R. Strategies to reduce delays in admission into a postanesthesia care unit from operating rooms. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 20:92-102, 2005

Kiekkas P, Poulopoulou M, Papahatzi A, Androutsopoulou C, Maliouki M, Prinou A. Nursing activities and use of time in the postanesthesia care unit. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing 20:311-322, 2005


Song D, Chung F, Ronayne M, Ward B, Yogendran S, Sibbick C. Fast-tracking (bypassing the PACU) does not reduce nursing workload after ambulatory surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia 93:768-774, 2004

Williams BA, Kentor ML, Vogt MT, Vogt WB, Coley KC, Williams JP, Roberts MS, Chelly JE, Harner CD, Fu FH. Economics of nerve block pain management after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: potential hospital cost savings via associated postanesthesia care unit bypass and same-day discharge. Anesthesiology. 100:697-706, 2004


Hsu VN, de Matta R, Lee CY. Scheduling patients in an ambulatory surgical center. Naval Research Logistics 50:218-238, 2003

Marcon E, Kharraja S, Smolski N, Luquet B, Viale JP. Determining the number of beds in the postanesthesia care unit: a computer simulation flow approach. Anesthesia & Analgesia 96:1415-1423, 2003

White PF, Rawal S, Nguyen J, Watkins A. PACU fast-tracking: an alternative to "bypassing" the PACU for facilitating the recovery process after ambulatory surgery. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing 18:247-253, 2003


Apfelbaum JL, Walawander CL, Grasela TH, Wise P, McLeskey C, Roizen MF, Wetchler BV, Korttila K. Eliminating intensive postoperative care in same-day surgery patients using short-acting anesthetics. Anesthesiology 97:66-74, 2002

Beaussier M, Decorps A, Tilleul P. Megnigbeto A. Balladur P. Lienhart A. Desflurane improves the throughput of patients in the PACU. A cost-effectiveness comparison with isoflurane. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 49:339-346, 2002

Epstein RH, Dexter F, Traub RD. Statistical power analysis to estimate how many months of data are required to identify post anesthesia care unit staffing to minimize delays in admission from operating rooms. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 17:84-88, 2002

Williams BA, Kentor ML, Williams JP, Vogt MT, DaPos SV, Harner CD, Fu FH. PACU bypass after outpatient knee surgery is associated with fewer unplanned hospital admissions but more phase II nursing interventions. Anesthesiology 97:981-988, 2002


Dexter F, Epstein RH, Penning DH. Statistical analysis of post-anesthesia care unit staffing at a surgical suite with frequent delays in admission from the operating room - a case study. Anesthesia & Analgesia 92:947-949, 2001  

Dexter F, Traub RD, Penning DH. Statistical analysis by Monte-Carlo simulation of the impact of administrative and medical delays in discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit on total patient care hours. Anesthesia & Analgesia 92:1222-1225, 2001  

Duncan PG, Shandro J, Bachand R, Ainsworth L. A pilot study of recovery room bypass ("fast-track protocol") in a community hospital. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 48:630-636, 2001

Junger A, Klasen J, Benson M, Sciuk G, Hartmann B, Sticher J, Hempelmann G. Factors determining length of stay of surgical day-case patients. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 18:314-321, 2001

Saar LM. Use of a modified postanesthesia recovery score in phase II perianesthesia period of ambulatory surgery patients. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 16(2):82-89, 2001


Mamaril M. Fast-tracking the postanesthesia patient: the pros and cons. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing. 15(2):89-93, 2000


Chung F, Mezei G. Factors contributing to a prolonged stay after ambulatory surgery. Anesthesia & Analgesia 89:1352-1359, 1999

Cohen MM, O-Brien-Pallas LL, Copplestone C, Wall R, Porter J. Nursing workload associated with adverse events in the postanesthesia care unit. Anesthesiology 91:1882-1890, 1999

Dexter F, Macario A, Manberg PJ, Lubarsky DA. Computer simulation to determine how rapid anesthetic recovery protocols to decrease the time for emergence or increase the phase I post anesthesia care unit bypass rate affect staffing of an ambulatory surgery center. Anesthesia & Analgesia 88:1053-1063, 1999  

Tessler MJ, Mitmaker L, Wahba RM, Covert CR. Patient flow in the postanesthesia care unit: an observational study. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 46:348-351, 1999

Zollinger TW, Saywell RM Jr, Smith CP, Highland D, Pfeiffer B, Kelton GM. Delays in patient transfer: postanesthesia care nursing. Nursing Economics 17:283-290, 1999


Cohen SE, Hamilton CL, Riley ET, Walker DS, Macario A, Halpern JW. Obstetric postanesthesia care unit stays: reevaluation of discharge criteria after regional anesthesia. Anesthesiology 89:1559-1565, 1998

D'Errico C, Voepel-Lewis TD, Siewert M. Malviya S. Prolonged recovery stay and unplanned admission of the pediatric surgical outpatient: an observational study. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 10:482-487, 1998

Tibi-Levy Y, de Pouvourville G, Rozenholc Y, Goursot G, Clergue F, Delemontey B, Feiss P, Laxenaire MC, Marty J, Beresniak A. Evaluation of benefits related to reduced length of stays in postanesthesia care units. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 14:172-179, 1998


Dexter F, Rittenmeyer H. Measuring productivity of the phase I postanesthesia care unit. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 12(2):7-11, 1997

Dexter F, Rittenmeyer H. Quantification of phase I postanesthesia nursing activities in the phase II postanesthesia care unit. Nursing Outlook 45:86-88, 1997

Dexter F, Rittenmeyer H. A statistical method for predicting postanesthesia care unit staffing needs. AORN Journal 65:947-957, 1997

Marshall S, Chung F. Assessment of ‘home readiness’: discharge criteria and postdischarge complications. Current Opinions in Anesthesiology 10:445-450, 1997


Chung F. Recovery pattern and home readiness after ambulatory surgery. Anesthesia & Analgesia 80:896-902, 1995

Dexter F, Tinker JH. Analysis of strategies to decrease post anesthesia care unit costs. Anesthesiology 82:94-101, 1995  

McAleer WE, Turner JA, Lismore D, Naqvi LA. Simulation of a hospital’s theatre suite. Journal of Management in Medicine 9(5):14-26, 1995


Bell M, Warner JA, Cameron AE. Patient flow patterns in a recovery room and implications for staffing. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 78:35-38, 1985


Kuzdrall PJ, Kwak NK, Schmitz HH. Simulating space requirements and scheduling policies in a hospital surgical suite. Simulation 36:163-171, 1981


Kwak NK, Kuzdrall PJ, Schmitz HH. The GPSS simulation of scheduling policies for surgical patients. Management Science 22:982-989, 1976